South Vietnam was a state which governed southern Vietnam until 1975. It received international recognition in 1950 as the State of Vietnam (1949–55) and later as the Republic of Vietnam (1955–75). Its capital was Saigon. The terms South Vietnam and North Vietnam became common usage in 1954 at the time of the Geneva Conference, which partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist zones at the 17th parallel. The United States was an ally of South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
South VietnamStates and territories established in 1955South Vietnam1975 disestablishmentsDivided regionsFormer polities of the Cold WarVietnam War
Zen is a school of Mahayana Buddhism and originated in China during the 6th century CE as Chán. From China, Zen spread south to Vietnam, to Korea and east to Japan. The word Zen is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Middle Chinese word 禪 Dzyen, which in turn is derived from the Sanskrit word dhyāna, which can be approximately translated as "absorption" or "meditative state".
ZenZenSchools of BuddhismReligion
North Vietnam was a communist state that ruled the northern half of Vietnam from 1954 until 1976. It was officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and was proclaimed in Hanoi in 1945. Vietnam was partitioned following the Geneva Conference at the end of the First Indochina War. During World War II, Vietnam was a French colony under Japanese occupation. Soon after Japan surrendered in 1945, the DRV was proclaimed in Hanoi.
North VietnamCommunism in Vietnam1976 disestablishmentsFirst Indochina WarStates and territories established in 1954Divided regionsFormer polities of the Cold WarVietnam WarFormer countries in Vietnamese historyFormer socialist republicsIndochina Wars
The Viet Cong, or National Liberation Front (NLF), was a political organization and army in South Vietnam and Cambodia that fought the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War (1959–1975), and emerged on the winning side. It had both guerrilla and regular army units, as well as a network of cadres who organized peasants in the territory it controlled.
Viet CongCommunism in VietnamGuerrilla organizationsNational liberation movements1976 disestablishmentsNational liberation armies1954 establishmentsRebellions in VietnamAnti-Revisionist organizationsFar-left politicsMilitary units and formations of the Vietnam War
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is the national and official language of Vietnam. It is the mother tongue of Vietnamese people (Kinh), and of about three million overseas Vietnamese. It is also spoken as a second language or a first language by many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. It is part of the Austro-Asiatic language family, of which it has the most speakers by a significant margin (several times larger than the other Austro-Asiatic languages put together).
Vietnamese languageLanguages of VietnamVietic languagesVietnamese languageSubject–verb–object languagesIsolating languages
1. Panorama of Lac-Kaï, French outpost in China. 2. Yun-nan, in the quay of Hanoi. 3. Flooded street of Hanoi. 4. Landing stage of Hanoi]] French Indochina (frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp) was part of the French colonial empire in southeast Asia. A federation of the three Vietnamese regions, Tonkin (North), Annam (Central), and Cochinchina (South), as well as Cambodia, was formed in 1887. Laos was added in 1893 and Kouang-Tchéou-Wan in 1900.
French IndochinaNew ImperialismFormer countries in Southeast Asia1953 disestablishments1887 establishmentsSecond French EmpireFrench IndochinaFormer countries in Vietnamese historyStates and territories established in 1887Former French colonies
The Vietnamese people (Vietnamese: người Việt or người Kinh) are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam and southern China. They are the majority ethnic group of Vietnam, comprising 86% of the population as of the 1999 census, and are officially known as Kinh to distinguish them from other ethnic groups in Vietnam. The earliest recorded name for the ancient Vietnamese people appears as "Lạc".
Vietnamese peopleVietnamese peopleEthnic groups in Asia
First Indochina War
Traditionally, the First Indochina War (also known as the French Indochina War, Anti-French War, Franco-Vietnamese War, Franco-Vietminh War, Indochina War, Dirty War in France, and Anti-French Resistance War in contemporary Vietnam) is said to have begun in French Indochina on December 19, 1946 and to have lasted until August 1, 1954. In fact, fighting between French forces and their Việt Minh opponents in the South dates from September 1945.
First Indochina WarFirst Indochina WarWars involving Vietnam20th century in France20th century in VietnamWars involving France
Army of the Republic of Vietnam
The Army of the Republic of Viet Nam - ARVN, sometimes referred to as the South Vietnamese Army (SVA), was the Ground Forces branch of the Republic of Vietnam’s Military Forces, the official military of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) which existed from 1955 until the fall of Saigon in 1975. It is estimated to have suffered 1,394,000 casualties (killed and wounded) during the Vietnam War. After the fall of Saigon to the invading North Vietnamese Army (NVA), the ARVN was dissolved.
Army of the Republic of VietnamDisbanded armiesMilitary of South Vietnam1975 disestablishmentsMilitary units and formations disestablished in the 1970s
Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội, English "League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a communist national independence coalition formed at Pac Bo on May 19, 1941. The Việt Minh initially formed to seek independence for Vietnam from the French Empire. When the Japanese occupation began, the Việt Minh opposed Japan with support from the United States and the Republic of China.
Viet MinhGuerrilla organizationsNational liberation movementsCommunist parties in VietnamVietnamese independence movementNational liberation armiesResistance movementsRebellions in VietnamRebellions in AsiaWorld War II resistance movements
A Vietnamese American (Vietnamese: Người Mỹ gốc Việt) is an American of Vietnamese descent. They make up about half of all overseas Vietnamese (Người Việt Hải Ngoại) and are the fourth-largest Asian American group. Mass Vietnamese immigration to the United States started after 1975, after the end of the Vietnam War. Early immigrants were refugee boat people fleeing persecution or poverty.
Vietnamese AmericanArticles with inconsistent citation formatsAmerican people of Asian descentEthnic groups in the United StatesVietnamese-American historyAmerican people of Vietnamese descentVietnamese diaspora
The Nguyễn Dynasty was the last ruling family of Vietnam. Their rule lasted a total of 143 years. It began in 1802 when Emperor Gia Long ascended the throne after defeating the Tây Sơn Dynasty and ended in 1945 when Bảo Đại abdicated the throne and transferred power to the State of Vietnam. During the reign of Emperor Gia Long, the nation officially became known as Việt Nam (越南), but from the reign of emperor Minh Mạng on, the nation was renamed Đại Nam (大南, literally "Great South").
Nguyen dynastyStates and territories established in 1802Vietnamese independence movementLists of office-holders by countryNguyen dynasty1945 disestablishmentsFormer monarchies of AsiaFormer countries in Vietnamese history
Hán tự or chữ Hán, chữ Nho is the Vietnamese term for Chinese characters, which was used to write classical Chinese and the Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary in Vietnamese language, in contrast to chữ Nôm, which was used to write the native vocabulary in Vietnamese language.
Han tuChinese languageChinese charactersVietnamese writing systemsWriting systemsLogographic writing systemsChinese scripts
Communist Party of Vietnam
The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) (Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam), formally established in 1930, is the governing party of the nation of Vietnam. It is today the only legal political party in that country. Describing itself as Marxist-Leninist, the CPV is the directing component of a broader group of organizations known as the Vietnamese Fatherland Front. In Vietnam, it is commonly referred to as "Đảng" (the Party) or "Đảng ta" (our Party).
Communist Party of VietnamRuling Communist partiesNational liberation movements1930 establishments in VietnamCommunist parties in VietnamPolitical parties in VietnamCommunist Party of VietnamPolitical parties established in 1930Anti-Revisionist organizations
My Lai Massacre
The My Lai Massacre was the Vietnam War mass murder of between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968, by United States Army soldiers of "Charlie" Company of 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade of the Americal Division. Most of the victims were women, children, infants, and elderly people. Some of the bodies were later found to be mutilated and many women allegedly raped prior to the killings.
My Lai MassacreQuang Ngai ProvinceVietnam War crimesWar crimes committed by the United StatesUnited States Army in the Vietnam WarMy Lai MassacreWar crimes in VietnamCollective punishmentMassacres in Vietnam1968 in VietnamMass murder in 1968Massacres committed by the United StatesUnited States military scandals
Boat people is a term that usually refers to refugees, illegal immigrants, or asylum seekers who emigrate in numbers in boats that are sometimes old and crudely made. The term came into common use during the late 1970s with the mass departure of Vietnamese refugees from Communist-controlled Vietnam, following the Vietnam War.
Boat peopleVietnamese refugeesHistory of VietnamVietnamese migrationIllegal immigrationHaitian diasporaVietnamese diasporaVietnam WarHuman migrationHistory of Haiti
Vietnamese cuisine is the cooking and baking of various foods and beverages developed in Vietnam. Regular ingredients include Fish sauce, shrimp paste, soy sauce, rice, fresh herbs, fruits and vegetables. Vietnamese recipes utilize lemongrass, mint, Vietnamese mint, long coriander and Thai basil leaves. Traditional Vietnamese cooking is greatly admired for its fresh ingredients, minimal use of oil, and reliance on herbs and vegetables.
Vietnamese cuisineVietnamese cuisine
Gallantry Cross (Vietnam)
The Gallantry Cross is a military decoration of the former Government of South Vietnam (Republic of Vietnam). The medal was established on 15 August 1950. The decoration was awarded to military personnel, civilians, and Armed Forces units and organizations in recognition of deeds of valor or heroic conduct while in combat with the enemy. Recipients were cited at the Armed Forces, Corps, Division, Brigade or Regiment level.
Gallantry Cross (Vietnam)Military of South VietnamMilitary awards and decorations of VietnamRecipients of the Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry
Eurasian (mixed ancestry)
The word Eurasian refers to people of mixed Asian and European ancestry. It was originally coined in 19th-century British India to refer to Anglo-Indians of mixed British and Indian descent. The term has seen some use in anthropological literature from the 1960s.
Eurasian (mixed ancestry)Multiracial affairsEthnic groups in AsiaEthnic groups in EuropeEthnic groups of partial European ancestry
The Eximbank V-League is the top football league in Vietnam. Launched in 1980, the league currently involves 14 teams.
V-League (Vietnam)Football competitions in VietnamNational association football premier leagues1980 establishments in VietnamSports leagues established in 1980
Vietnam Air Force
The Vietnam Air Force – VNAF was the Air Force branch of the Republic of Vietnam’s Military Forces, the official military of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) from 1955 to 1975. The VNAF began with a few hand-picked men chosen to fly alongside French pilots during the State of Vietnam era. It eventually grew into the world’s sixth largest air force at the height of its power, in 1974.
Vietnam Air ForceVietnam Air ForceMilitary units and formations of the Vietnam WarMilitary of South VietnamDisbanded air forces
The Siamese is one of the first distinctly recognized breeds of Oriental cat. The breed originated in Thailand (formerly known as Siam), where they are one of several native breeds and are called Wichian Mat (วิเชียรมาศ, a name meaning "moon diamond"). In the 20th century the Siamese cat became one of the most popular breeds in Europe and North America.
Siamese (cat)Cat breedsCat breeds originating in Thailand
Đại Việt is the official name of Vietnamese dynasties beginning with the rule of Lý Thánh Tông (r. 1054–1072), the third king of the Lý Dynasty. Previously, since the rule of Đinh Bộ Lĩnh (r. 968–979), the country had been referred to officially as Đại Cồ Việt; cồ is a synonym of 大. The term "Việt" is cognate with the Chinese word "Yue", a name applied in ancient times to various non-Chinese groups who lived in what is now southern China and northern Vietnam.
Dai VietHistory of Vietnam
Republic of Vietnam Navy
The Republic of Vietnam Navy - VNN was the naval branch of the Republic of Vietnam’s Military Forces, the official military of the former Republic of Vietnam (or South Vietnam) from 1955 to 1975. The early fleet consisted of boats from France. After 1955 and the transfer of the armed forces to Vietnamese control, the fleet was supplied from the United States. With assistance from the U.S.
Republic of Vietnam NavyDisbanded naviesMilitary of South VietnamRepublic of Vietnam Navy
Chữ Nôm is a script formerly used to write Vietnamese. It makes use of Chinese characters; known as Hán tự or Hán Nôm in Vietnamese, as well as other characters coined following the Chinese model. It was used almost exclusively by the elite, mostly for literature while formal writing was done in classical Chinese. Nôm was replaced by quốc ngữ (alphabetical Vietnamese) beginning in the 1920s and is now almost entirely obsolete.
Chu NomChinese charactersVietnamese writing systemsWriting systemsLogographic writing systemsChinese scripts
The đồng has been the currency of Vietnam since May 3, 1978. Issued by the State Bank of Vietnam, it is represented by the symbol "₫". The đồng currently ranks as the second least valuable currency in terms of exchange rate. Formerly, it was subdivided into 10 hào, which was further subdivided into 10 xu, neither of which is now used.
Vietnamese dong1978 introductionsCurrencies of VietnamEconomy of VietnamCurrency signs
The Vietnamese Martyrs, also known as the Martyrs of Tonkin, Martyrs of Annam, Andrew Dung-Lac and Companions (Anrê Dũng-Lạc và Các bạn tử đạo), or Martyrs of Indochina, are saints on the Roman Catholic calendar of saints canonized by Pope John Paul II. On June 19, 1988, thousands of Overseas Vietnamese worldwide gathered at the Vatican for the Celebration of the Canonization of 117 Vietnamese Martyrs, an event chaired by Monsignor Tran Van Hoai.
Vietnamese MartyrsHistory of Catholicism in VietnamExecuted childrenVietnamese Roman Catholic saintsCatholic martyrsLists of Christian martyrsExecuted Vietnamese people1625 deathsRoman Catholic Church in VietnamChild saints
State of Vietnam
The State of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Quốc gia Việt Nam) was a state that claimed authority over all of Vietnam during the First Indochina War, and replaced the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam (1948–1949). The provisional government was a brief transitional administration between colonial Cochinchina and an independent state.
State of VietnamSouth Vietnam1955 disestablishmentsStates and territories established in 1949Former polities of the Cold WarFormer countries in Vietnamese history
The Vietnamese alphabet (Vietnamese: Quốc Ngữ; literally national language) is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language. It is based on the Latin script (more specifically the Portuguese alphabet) with some digraphs and the addition of nine accent marks or diacritics – four of them to create additional sounds, and the other five to indicate the tone of each word. The many diacritics, often two on the same letter, make written Vietnamese easily recognizable.
Vietnamese alphabetLanguage orthographiesSpelling reformLatin alphabetsVietnamese writing systems